Urban Groundwater model

Welcome to the Urban Groundwater model,UGM-1 . UGM-1 is a lumped (1-dimensional) groundwater model at monthly timestep, that users can run online, from the Bangalore Urban Metabolism Project (BUMP) web portal.

This is a model for creating awareness and teaching about urban growth, groundwater use and its impacts on groundwater levels. It is an exploratory tool to answer what-if questions. It is not meant to give prescriptive answers.

A lumped (1-d) model is basically a vertical water balance model. Assume it is a city. Inputs are for an entire city. Outputs are for an entire city. The numerical model description is available here: (URL) The default inputs for UGM-1 are based on Bangalore city (Bengaluru), India; however, users can change the inputs and hydrogeological parameters to explore a different city's locale.


  1. Water supplied at source (WS) (default, 1400 MLD or million litres per day)
  2. Leakage factor (assumed going to gw recharge)
  3. Other Water Delivered (million Litres per day)

Hydrogeological parameters Quantifies the volume of water released from aquifer storage for a unit drop in groundwater head Fraction of rainfall that becomes groundwater recharge
Forcings City population at start of model run This represents the per capita demand across ALL sectors, domestic and non-domestic. Population annual % growth rate Total water supplied at distribution points Leakage from water distribution pipes (%) Groundwater pumped by utility